Part I - Jurisdiction in Admiralty

  • Chapter 01

    History and Admiralty Jurisdiction of the High Courts

    Early History of the High Courts; Historical Development; Statutory Jurisdiction; Jurisdiction; Colonial Courts of Admiralty; The 1861 Act was discarded by the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 on August 9, 2017 that came in force on April 1, 2018.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 02

    Admiralty Courts in India

    The jurisdiction of the High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Odisha have Admiralty actions.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 03

    Specific Jurisdiction and Jurisdiction in Admiralty

    The three Indian Courts of Admiralty i.e. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were courts of specific jurisdiction. The statutory admiralty framework of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 have replaced the old act of 1861 and is now in force from April 1, 2018, the principles of 1952 Brussels Arrest Convention and 1999 Geneva Arrest Convention have been incorporated in the new act of 2017. The jurisdiction of the High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Odisha have Admiralty actions.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 04

    Exercise of the Admiralty Jurisdiction

    Section 5 and 6 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out the mode of exercise of the admiralty jurisdiction, which may take the form of action in rem or action in personam. Admiralty jurisdiction is statutory, with specific heads of subject matter. It entertains both claims in rem and claims in personam.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 05

    In Rem and Personam Actions

    Section 5 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out action in rem. Section 6 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out action in personam. Section 6 Subject to section 7, the High Court may exercise admiralty jurisdiction by action in personam in respect of any maritime claim referred to in clauses (a) to (w) of sub-section (1) of section 4..

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 06

    Order of Priority of Maritime Claims

    Section 10 (1) and (2) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out the order of priority of maritime claims. The order of maritime claims determining the inter se priority in an admiralty proceeding shall be a claim on the vessel where there is a maritime lien; registered mortgages and charges of same nature on the vessel; all other claims.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 07

    Maritime Claims and Analysis

    Section 4 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out a list of maritime claims in respect whereof, the High Courts can exercise their Admiralty Jurisdiction. The lists of maritime claims are similar to the maritime claims defined under the International Convention in relation to the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships 1952, Brussels and the International Convention on the Arrest of Ships, 1999, Geneva.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 08

    Maritime Lien and Analysis

    A maritime lien is a species of charge that attaches to property and follows the property - most commonly a ship - to secure certain types of claims. It is inchoate from the time of the events giving rise to it, attaching to the ship, travelling with the ship into anyone's possession even a bona fide purchaser for value without notice, except a purchaser at an admiralty court sale and perfected by legal process. Only a limited class of maritime liens are recognised under section 9 (1) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017. Maritime lien means a maritime claim as recognised under section 4 (1) (w) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 against the owner, demise charterer, manager or operator of the vessel referred to in clauses (a) to (e) of sub-section (1) of section 9, which shall continue to exist under sub-section (2) of that section.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 09

    Title, Possession, Ownership, Employment or Earnings of a Ship

    The jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court in regard to possession and co-ownership is exercised for a fourfold purpose; to place claimants in possession of a ship; or of the earnings of a ship to which they may be entitled; while protecting the interests of one or more co-owners as against others, to enable a ship to be employed; to examine accounts between co-owners, and to apportion the earnings after such examination. Section 4 (1) (a) and (b) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 10

    Mortgage or a Charge

    By a mortgage the mortgagee acquires a right to the ownership of a vessel in a certain event, namely, on default of payment of principal and interest, since it is a transfer of all the mortgagor's interest by way of security for the payment of a loan. Mortgagee by reason of his mortgage shall not be deemed to be the owner of the ship, the mortgagor remains the dominus of the ship with regard to everything connected with its employment until the moment arrives when the mortgagee takes possession. The mortgagor therefore does not cease to be the owner of such mortgaged ship except so far as may be necessary for making it available as a security for the mortgage debt. From this it necessarily follows that a mortgagee cannot bring an action of restraint as if he were a co-owner. Section 4 (1) (c) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 11

    Loss or Damage done by any Ship

    The claimant must establish that the ship has, done the damage (whether by collision or otherwise) to invoke admiralty jurisdiction over any claim for damage done and some authority must be shown that the damage as caused in the present case entitles the parties to proceed in rem. Damage done by a Ship means the damage done by any negligent act or behaviour of those in charge of the ship and a maritime lien arises. Section 4 (1) (d) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 12

    Loss of Life or Personal Injury

    A seafarer or its family member (in case of seafarers death) can initiate legal action by filing an admiralty suit in the High Court having admiralty jurisdiction and obtain an order of arrest of the offending ship or sister ship owned by the offending ship and claim compensation, when the ship is in Indian territorial waters. Section 4 (1) (e) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject in maritime claims and under section 9 (1) (b) as a maritime lien shall have priority for loss of life or personal injury occurring whether on land or on water, in direct connection with the operation of a vessel.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 13

    Loss or Damage to or in connection with any Goods

    Section 4 (1) (f) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims, loss or damage to or in connection with any goods. Ship is liable to be arrested for the enforcement of maritime claims, or seized in execution or satisfaction of judgments in legal actions arising out of loss or damage to or in connection with any goods. Loss of or damage to goods indicate that the scope of this head of claim is loss of or damage to cargo.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 14

    Claims relating to Cargo or Passenger on board and Contract of Affreightment

    The Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court in respect of cargo claims, passenger on board and contracts of affreightment is statutory. Section 4 (1) (f) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims, agreement relating to the carriage of goods or passengers on board a vessel, whether contained in a charter party or otherwise.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 15

    Use or Hire of any Ship

    Agreement relating to the use or hire of any ship whether by charter party or otherwise, unpaid dues for any use or hire of a ship, admiralty action will lie. Section 4 (1) (h) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above maritime claims pertaining to agreement relating to the use or hire of the vessel, whether contained in a charter party or otherwise.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 16

    Salvage

    Salvor has a maritime lien on the salvaged property. A successful salvage claim requires three proofs: marine peril; voluntary service rendered when not required as an existing duty or from a special contract; and success in whole or in part, or contribution to the success of the operation. Salvage operations or any salvage agreement, including, if applicable, special compensation relating to salvage operations in respect of a ship which by itself or its cargo threatened damage to the environment. Section 4 (1) (i) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with salvage services, including, if applicable, special compensation relating to salvage services in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatens damage to the environment.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 17

    Towage

    A Towage service may be described as the employment of one vessel to expedite the voyage of another, when nothing more is required than accelerating her progress. Section 4 (1) (j) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with towage..

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 18

    Pilotage

    The remuneration of pilots, being in the nature of wages, must be touched on. By maritime law the Admiralty Court would entertain claims by them for payment of sums due, whether in an action in rem or in personam. A pilot may proceed either in rem or in personam for the authorised pilotage dues to which he may be entitled. Section 4 (1) (k) of Section 4 (1) (j) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with towage.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 19

    Supplies or Services rendered to any Ship

    Section 4 (1) (l) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject maritime claims, goods, materials, perishable or non-perishable provisions, bunker fuel, equipment (including containers), supplied or services rendered to the vessel for its operation, management, preservation or maintenance including any fee payable or leviable.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 20

    Construction, Repair or Equipment of any Ship

    A classification certificate has been held to be equipment and so a claim by a classification society for their charges in connection with issuing such a certificate. Claims under this head do not give rise to a maritime lien, but a repairer has a possessory lien at common law. A ship can be arrested under admiralty jurisdiction for any outstanding dues under Section 4 (1) (m) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 which deals with construction, reconstruction, repair, converting or equipping of the vessel.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 21

    Port, Harbour, Canal, Dock, Tolls, Waterway Charges and Dues

    A ship can be arrested under admiralty jurisdiction for any outstanding dues under Section 4 (1) (n) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 which deals with dues in connection with any port, harbour, canal, dock or light tolls, other tolls, waterway or any charges of similar kind chargeable under any law for the time being in force.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 22

    Wages

    A seaman to whom wages are due has a right of action against the owner, the crew may bring an action in the Admiralty court either in personam against the owner, or in rem against the ship. Section 4 (1) (o) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim by a master or member of the crew of a vessel or their heirs and dependents for wages or any sum due out of wages or adjudged to be due which may be recoverable as wages or cost of repatriation or social insurance contribution payable on their behalf or any amount an employer is under an obligation to pay to a person as an employee, whether the obligation arose out of a contract of employment or by operation of a law (including operation of a law of any country) for the time being in force, and includes any claim arising under a manning and crew agreement relating to a vessel, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of sections 150 and 151 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 23

    Disbursements

    A ship can be arrested under admiralty jurisdiction for any outstanding dues under Section 4 (1) (p) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 which deals with disbursements incurred on behalf of the vessel or its owners. Disbursements by the master on account of the ship can be recovered in a suit for wages. The terms disbursements includes all proper expenditure made by the master on the ship and must generally be explained by reference to what disbursements has been incurred for the ship.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 24

    General Average or Average

    The lien on cargo for general average charges can be exercised only by the shipowner in possession of the goods and, where necessary, it is his duty to other cargo owners to protect their interests by retaining possession of any goods in respect of which a contribution in general average is outstanding. However, owing to the difficulty of assessing the amount of such contributions and the time required for general average adjustment, it is not usual for shipowners to avail themselves of the right of lien in these circumstances. The customary procedure is for the goods to be delivered in exchange for the security afforded by a general average bond, a general average deposit, or both. Section 4 (1) (q) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim on average or general average.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 25

    Dispute under Contract for the Sale of Vessel

    Section 4 (1) (r) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim on dispute arising out of a contract for the sale of the vessel. A contract for sale of the vessel would include vessel for further trading or a vessel for demolition or a scrap.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 26

    Insurance Premium

    Insurance Premium is within the closed list for ship arrest. Section 4 (1) (s) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim on insurance premium (including mutual insurance calls) in respect of the vessel, payable by or on behalf of the vessel owners or demise charterers.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 27

    Commission, Brokerage or Agency Fees

    Any unpaid commission, brokerage or agency fees by the vessel owner or demise charterer of the vessel are within the close list of maritime claim and the claimant can arrest a ship for recovery. Section 4 (1) (s) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim on commission, brokerage or agency fees payable in respect of the vessel by or on behalf of the vessel owner or demise charterer.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 28

    Damage or Threat to Environment

    Section 4 (1) (u) of the Admiralty Act (2017) deals with the above subject claim on damage or threat of damage caused by the vessel to the environment, coastline or related interests; measures taken to prevent, minimise, or remove such damage; compensation for such damage; costs of reasonable measures for the restoration of the environment actually undertaken or to be undertaken; loss incurred or likely to be incurred by third parties in connection with such damage; or any other damage, costs, or loss of a similar nature to those identified in this clause. Parts X-B, X-C and XI-A of the Merchant Shipping Act deal with the prevention and containment of pollution of the sea by oil. India follows the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992 (as amended).

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 29

    Environment; Cost or Expenses relating to Wrecked, Stranded, Abandoned and Sunken Ship

    Section 4 (1) (v) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 deals with the above subject claim on costs or expenses relating to raising, removal, recovery, destruction or the rendering harmless of a vessel which is sunk, wrecked, stranded or abandoned, including anything that is or has been on board such vessel, and costs or expenses relating to the preservation of an abandoned vessel and maintenance of its crew.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 30

    Forfeitures

    A ship is liable to be forfeited under section 33, 35, 68 and 69 (Part V) of the Merchant Shipping Act 1958.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 31

    Publicly Owned Ship and Foreign State Owned

    The Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 shall not apply to a warship, naval auxiliary or other vessel owned or operated by the Central or a State Government and used for any non-commercial purpose, and, shall also not apply to a foreign vessel which is used for any non-commercial purpose as may be notified by the Central Government. A vessel owned by Government owned companies are within the purview of the act. If the ship belongs to Government of Foreign State, in that event consent of the Central Government in India would be required to proceed against the vessel and its owners.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 32

    Arrest and Buyers Rights in Auction

    Section 2 (1) (c) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 defines 'arrest' and it means detention or restriction for removal of a vessel by order of a High Court to secure a maritime claim including seizure of a vessel in execution or satisfaction of a judgment or order. On the sale of a vessel under this Act by the High Court in exercise of its admiralty jurisdiction, the vessel shall vest in the purchaser free from all encumbrances, liens, attachments, registered mortgages and charges of the same nature on the vessel.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 33

    Ship and Sisterships

    Section 2 (1) (l) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 defines 'vessel' and it includes any ship, boat, sailing vessel or other description of vessel used or constructed for use in navigation by water, whether it is propelled or not, and includes a barge, lighter or other floating vessel, a hovercraft, an off-shore industry mobile unit, a vessel that has sunk or is stranded or abandoned and the remains of such a vessel. A vessel shall not be deemed to be a vessel for the purposes of this clause, when it is broken up to such an extent that it cannot be put into use for navigation, as certified by a surveyor.'Sister-Ship' is a ship which is under the same beneficial ownership or in simple terms, owned in majority by the same owner or class of owners. More importantly, apart from arresting an offending ship in order to secure a maritime claim, a claimant may also arrest a sister ship of the offending ship in order to secure his claim.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Chapter 34

    Claimants Undertaking

    The claimant filing admiralty suit in the High Court having admiralty jurisdiction have to file an undertaking along with the suit in an affidavit form mainly for protection of owner, demise charterer, manager or operator or crew of vessel arrested under Section 11 (1) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Part II - Ship Arrest, Release & Admiralty Practice

    • Chapter 35

      Arrest of Ship

      The main purpose of arrest is to obtain security for satisfaction of judgment in the action in rem and it is necessary to arrest the ship in order to establish jurisdiction. A ship may be arrested to acquire jurisdiction; or to obtain security for satisfaction of the claim when decreed; or in execution of a decree

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 36

      International Convention for Arrest of Ships

      India is not a signatory to the Brussel and Geneva conventions, the principles incorporated in the conventions became applicable for the enforcement of maritime claims against foreign ships as is held by the Supreme Court of India. Section 4 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 sets out a list of maritime claims in respect whereof, the High Courts can exercise their Admiralty Jurisdiction. The lists of maritime claims are similar to the maritime claims defined under the International Convention in relation to the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships 1952, Brussels and the International Convention on the Arrest of Ships, 1999, Geneva.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 37

      Caveat Against Arrest

      Any person desiring to prevent the arrest of any property shall file in the registry a praecipe, signed by himself or his Advocate, who may be acting for him, requesting that a caveat be entered against the arrest of the said property and undertaking to enter an appearance in person or a vakalatnama (appearance) in any suit that may be instituted against the said property and to give security in such suit in a sum not exceeding the amount to be stated in the praecipe or to pay such sum into the registry. A caveat against the issue of a warrant for the arrest of the said property shall thereupon be entered in a book to be kept in the registry, called the 'Caveat Warrant Book'. A caveat against arrest is valid for 90 days. Successive caveats may be entered upon expiry.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 38

      Execution of arrest warrant

      The Sheriff of Mumbai or the Admiral Marshal or his substitute may execute a warrant of arrest on the ship. Freight cannot be arrested separate from the ship or cargo, and so freight which has already been paid to the ship owners by the consignees cannot be arrested. Where, however, a claim is brought against ship and freight, the court may order that the Sheriff of Mumbai or the Admiral Marshal should sell the cargo under arrest and pay the freight from the proceeds of sale. If the warrant of arrest is dispensed with the port, custom and other authorities act upon not allowing the vessel to sail outward from its jurisdiction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 39

      Sheriff or the Marshal

      Sheriff or the Marshal or other officer including administrative assistants such as Bailiffs or other subordinate officers who shall assist in carrying out their duties to execute the process of the Court including serving order of arrest or executing arrest warrants on ships; taking all appropriate steps to retain safe custody of, and to preserve, a ship under arrest, including removing from the ship, cargo that is under arrest; removing cargo from a ship that is under arrest; and moving the ship that is under arrest; arranging for the release of a ship pursuant to an Order of Court or instrument of Release; arranging for the valuation and sale of a ship pursuant to an Order of Court; filing a return of the sale, and an account of the sale and documents in support of the account for taxation; arranging for the payment of the proceeds of the sale of a ship into the Court.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 40

      Property (Ship) under arrest and its effect

      The effect of arrest is that it constitutes the ship or other property as security in the hands of the court for the claim in the action and this security cannot be defeated by the subsequent insolvency of the owner of the arrested property.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 41

      Arrest of a ship does not include cargoArrest of a ship does not include cargo

      If a ship is ordered to be arrested while she is in the course of discharging her cargo, the Sheriff or the Marshal will not stop the discharge operations except when the claim form is in respect of a claim for salvage and the cargo is to be arrested. Normally, when an order of arrest of ship is obtained it is only the ship and its appurtenances are arrested but does not include the cargo unless there is an order from the court for arrest of the cargo also.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 42

      Arrest of cargo does not include ship

      If cargo on board the ship is ordered to be arrested, the Sheriff or the Marshal will arrest the cargo. Without intervening in the claim in which the cargo has been arrested the ship owners or the vessel interest can request the Sheriff or the Marshal to take the appropriate steps to enable the ship to be discharged, the Sheriff or Marshal will make an application to the court for appropriate relief.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 43

      Caveat against Release and Payment

      Any person desiring to prevent the release of any property under arrest shall file in the registry a praecipe, signed by himself or his Advocate, who may be acting for him, requesting that a caveat be entered against the release of the said property. A caveat against the release of the said property shall thereupon be entered in a book to be kept in the registry, called the 'Caveat Release Book'. Any person desiring to prevent the payment out of court of any money in court representing the proceeds of sale of any property shall file in the registry a praecipe, signed by himself or his Advocate who may be acting for him, requesting that a caveat be entered against payment out of Court of the said proceeds of sale. A caveat against the payment out of Court of such sale proceeds shall thereupon be entered in a book to be kept in the registry, called the 'Caveat Payment Book'.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 44

      Arrested ship affecting port operation

      Should the arrest of a ship in a port cause considerable and continued disruption to the operation of the port, the port authorities may remove the ship to a safe berth or in such other place as he think appropriate within its jurisdiction and not allowing the ship to sail away and keeping her under arrest.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 45

      Possessory Lien

      Possessory liens are usually asserted by shipyards who have not been paid for repairs to vessels. This is a self-help remedy long recognised by the courts. Shipyards exercising possessory lien are entitled to detain the vessel without having to arrest the vessel. On occasions, parties exercising possessory lien may need to arrest the vessel in order to obtain the assistance of the court to sell the vessel, as a right to exercise possessory lien does not carry the right to sell the vessel.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 46

      Security for Release of a Ship

      Security for the claim in the suit is furnished by means of a cash deposit in the registry or a bank guarantee for the amount stated in the warrant of arrest.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 47

      Release of Arrested Property (Ship)

      In cases where the arrested ship is released on security being furnished for the plaintiff's claim, the suit, unless compromised, will proceed to trial and judgment in the normal course. Following its arrest, the ship is usually released from arrest after security has been provided by the ship owner or any interested parties for the claim. The security may be in the form of a bail bond, a payment of money into court, a bank guarantee or a letter of undertaking (LOU) from the ship owner's protection and indemnity club (P.& I. Club).

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 48

      Wrongful Arrest

      The cases involving wrongful arrest are rare and there isnt a single decided case in India and to succeed in a claim for wrongful arrest, the owners must demonstrate that there is either mala fides (bad faith) or crassa negligentia (gross negligence) which implies malice.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 49

      Applicable Law

      The applicable law for ship arrest is the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 50

      Admiralty Suit and Pleadings

      Plaint, Judges Order, Undertaking, Warrant of Arrest etc.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 51

      Application for Arrest

      The Admiralty Rules of the High Courts having Admiralty Jurisdiction require that a suit shall be instituted by a plaint drawn up, subscribed and verified according to the provisions of the Civil Procedure Code 1908.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 52

      Order of Arrest and Warrant of Arrest

      The Admiralty Judge may pass a separate order arresting the ship and also sign the Judges Order for arrest of the ship. Warrant of Arrest are sometimes dispenses with by the Judge.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 53

      Admiralty Rules

      The Admiralty Rules of the High Courts provide that the rules and practice of the court in the matter of suits and proceedings on the original side of the court shall, if not inconsistent with the said Rules, apply to suits and proceedings on the Admiralty side of the court.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 54

      Procedure for Ship Arrest

      This Chapter explains the complete procedure for ship arrest from inception such as execution of power of attorney, taking search in the registry, notice to consul general, filing of plaint, undertaking, judges order or interim application, warrant of arrest, making an urgent application for order of arrest, urgent application for obtaining order of arrest is moved before the Admiralty Judge.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 55

      Presence of a Ship (Res) at the time of filing of Admiralty Suit

      Court can acquire jurisdiction if the writ or if the warrant of arrest is executed on the ship when it arrives within the territorial jurisdiction of this Court. An order of arrest of a ship can be obtained from the High Court having admiralty jurisdiction and that the ship should be in that state jurisdiction of the High Court at the time of filing of the suit.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 56

      Indian Flag Ship

      Ship flying Indian flag can be arrested by invoking admiralty jurisdiction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 57

      Mareva Injunction

      There is no provision in the law of India for Mareva injunction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 58

      Attachment before Judgment

      "Attachment" before judgment of a ship, as of any other property, is available in all the Indian courts of ordinary civil jurisdiction having jurisdiction over the subject-matter of the claim for most kinds of claims, which would include claim for charter hire or stevedoring services or supplies.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 59

      Arresting Ship to obtain Security for Arbitral Award or Court Judgment

      A ship may be arrested for the purpose of obtaining security notwithstanding that, by virtue of a jurisdiction clause or arbitration clause.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 60

      Effect of Arbitration Clause on Arrest

      Arbitration clause in the Charter Party Agreement, Bill of Lading or to any contract are given effect to.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 61

      Arbitration

      Claimant has no right to arrest a ship in respect of a dispute arising under a contract, which contains an arbitration clause.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 62

      Lay Time

      The time during which a ship is lying, for the purpose of loading or discharging is Laytime, as distinct from moving with the object of carrying her cargo from one place to another.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 63

      Claims Payable in Foreign Currency

      A sum of money expressed in a foreign currency can legitimately be claimed by the plaintiff and decreed by the court.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 64

      Interest

      The question of interest on a claim in an Admiralty suit is dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Section 34 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 65

      Limitation Periods, Time Bar

      The (Indian) Limitation Act 1963 applies to all claims within the Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Courts. The Act provides a three-year limitation period for actions for damage, wages, necessaries, salvage, and towage. In case of claims for loss or damage to cargo brought under bills of lading incorporating the Hague Rules, the one year period under rule 6 of Article III, providing for an extinguishments of the cause of action, itself may apply.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 66

      Security for Costs and Damages

      Security for costs and damages is not a condition for the arrest, but while applying for the arrest an undertaking is required to be given in writing to pay such sum by way of damages as the court may award compensation in the event of a party affected sustains prejudice by the arrest.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 67

      Counter Security

      The High court having admiralty jurisdiction has discretionary power to pass order for counter security if required.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 68

      Costs

      The court has the discretionary power to accept or reject the costs.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 69

      Writ of Summons

      A writ of summons on the vessel may not be required if warrant of arrest is properly served on the vessel.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 70

      Carrier's Identity

      Identification of the carrier may be problematic where goods are carried on a chartered vessel and the bill of lading is in the hands of a shipper or receiver who is not himself party to the charterparty.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 71

      Crew on Board after Arrest of Ship

      The Sheriff or the Marshal owes no duty to the crew on board as such. The relationship of the Sheriff or the Marshal to the crew will depend upon the circumstances as they affect the discharge of the Sheriff or the Marshal’s duty to retain custody of, and to preserve the ship.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 72

      Claims relating to Cargo

      The Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court in respect of cargo claims and contracts of affreightment is statutory. Section 4 (1) (d), (f), (g), (i) and (q) of the Admiralty Act (2017) deals with the above subject maritime claims. The High Court has Admiralty jurisdiction over any claim arising out of loss or damage caused by the operation of a vessel; loss or damage to or in connection with any goods; agreement relating to the carriage of goods or passengers on board a vessel, whether contained in a charter party or otherwise; salvage services, including, if applicable, special compensation relating to salvage services in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatens damage to the environment; particular average or general average.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 73

      Claims for Unpaid Bunker Dues

      Unpaid dues of Bunker Suppliers are supplies secured by a maritime claim under section 4 (1)(l) of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017. Bunker fuel is technically any type of fuel oil used aboard ships. It gets its name from the containers on ships and in ports that it is stored in, called bunkers. Unpaid dues of Bunker Suppliers are secured by a maritime claim and/or a right to arrest the vessel in rem to which the bunkers were supplied or her sister ship.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 74

      Collision Actions

      The maritime claim in respect of which the power of arrest is recognised in law includes section 4 (1) (d) of the Admiralty Act (2017) deals with loss or damage caused by the operation of a vessel. There is a provision under section 443 and 445 of the Merchant Shipping Act to detain ship that has occasioned damage also Part X deals with collisions, accidents at sea and liability.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 75

      Restrictions to invoke Admiralty Jurisdiction

      There are restrictions to invoke Admiralty Jurisdiction on issues such as arbitration, publicly owned ship, ship owned by government of foreign state, collision.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 76

      Appeals

      Any party aggrieved by the order passed by the single judge of the trial court have an option to file an appeal before the division bench in the same High Court and any order passed by the appeal court of the High Court the aggrieved party may file an Special Leave Petition in the Supreme Court of India.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 77

      Execution of Foreign Decree

      A Person who has obtained a decree from a court in a foreign country can approach an Indian court for enforcement of the said decree under the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 78

      Beaching of a Ship for Demolition

      A vessel shall not be deemed to be a vessel, when it is broken up to such an extent that it cannot be put into use for navigation, as certified by a surveyor, is no longer considered as a ship and therefore Admiralty action cannot be initiated. The ship is no longer within the definition of a ship, the nature and category of the res is entirely altered, the court is without jurisdiction as there is no res, the ship has literally ceased to exist from the definition of a ship. A action in rem cannot be maintained in such situation.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 79

      Indian Territorial Waters for Ship Arrest

      Section 2 (k) of the Admiralty Act (2017) defines “territorial waters” that shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and Other Maritime Zones Act, 1976 (80 of 1976).

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 80

      One Ship Company

      It has long been the practice in the shipping business to arrange for several ships which are financed by a common source and managed or operated as a fleet, to be registered in the names of separate companies whose only asset is the particular ship registered in its name.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 81

      State-Wise Ship Arrest

      An order of arrest of a ship passed by the High Court having admiralty jurisdiction can be executed in that State having High Court that passed the order of arrest.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 82

      Piercing the Corporate Veil

      Corporate veil can be lifted to establish beneficial ownership for the purpose of arresting a sister vessel-ship but should be supported with evidence.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 83

      Enforced Sale of the Ship

      In any action a court has power to order the sale of property which is perishable, likely to deteriorate or in relation to which there is good reason for sale.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 84

      Appraisement and Judicial Sale

      Appraisement is the official valuation of the ship by a court appointed valuer in order to prevent the ship from being sold at too low a price.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 85

      Condition of Sale

      The sale is free and clear of all maritime or other liens and encumbrances.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 86

      Sheriffs Poundage

      Poundage is payable at 1 per cent of the amount received by the plaintiff in full or part satisfaction of a judgment or, in the event of the claim being satisfied, compromised or settled outside court, upon the amount of such satisfaction, compromise or settlement.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 87

      Detaining vessel under Merchant Shipping Act

      Ship can be detained under section 443, 444 of the Merchant Shipping Act.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Chapter 88

      Indian Ships, Registration

      A ship entitled to fly the flag of a country needs to be registered in that country. The object of registration is to ensure that persons who are entitled to the privilege and protection of the Indian flag get them.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

Part III - Notes & Summary

  • Notes & Summary 01

    Rearrest and Multiple Arrest

    If a ship has been arrested and released there is no reason why it should not be rearrested for a valid claim. The High Court may also order arrest of any other vessel for the purpose of providing security against a maritime claim, in lieu of the vessel against which a maritime claim has been made under this Act, subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) Provided that no vessel shall be arrested under this sub-section in respect of a maritime claim under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 4..

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 02

    Jurisdiction after the ship has sailed

    If Admiralty action is initiated by filing a suit and an order of arrest is obtained and the ship sails out before the order of arrest is effected, the ship may be arrested if she returns back under the general rule of perpetuatio jurisdictionis.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 03

    Jurisdiction before the arrival of the ship

    At the time when the Admiralty suit is filed in the court the ship must already be within Indian territorial waters or jurisdiction of that state. The High Court may order arrest of any vessel which is within its jurisdiction for the purpose of providing security against a maritime claim which is the subject of an admiralty proceeding.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 04

    Trading of a ship under arrest

    The decision whether further trading of the ship should be permitted or not is left to the discretion of the court. Some admiralty judges are of the view that trading of an arrested ship tantamount to diluting the order of arrest and the purpose of arrest is defeated. A ship is arrested by the Sheriff or the Marshal acting as an officer of the court. The ship comes into the custody, but not the possession, of the Sheriff or the Marshal.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 05

    Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments

    Arrest means detention or restriction for removal of a vessel by order of a High Court to secure a maritime claim including seizure of a vessel in execution or satisfaction of a judgment or order. A ship can be arrested for recognition and enforcement of judgments or order.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 06

    Same Cause of Action and between the same parties

    If proceedings involving the same parties and same cause action are already initiated elsewhere when proceedings are commenced before it unless the jurisdiction of the other court is not established, the Admiralty court will dismiss the suit.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 07

    Forum Non-Conveniens

    Forum non-conveniens is a common law doctrine whereby courts may refuse to take jurisdiction over matters where there is a more appropriate forum available to the parties. As a matter of civil procedure, courts must decide whether and in what circumstances they will accept jurisdiction over parties and subject matter when a lawsuit begins.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 08

    Foreign government ship

    The property of a foreign government not in use or intended for use for commercial purpose cannot be arrested in an action in rem. The government may consent to the use of such process. If the ship belongs to Government of Foreign State, in that event consent of the Central Government in India would be required to proceed against the vessel and its owners.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 09

    Ship for demolition

    Section 2 (1) (l) of the Admiralty Act (2017) defines vessel which includes any ship, boat, sailing vessel or other description of vessel used or constructed for use in navigation by water, whether it is propelled or not, and includes a barge, lighter or other floating vessel, a hovercraft, an off-shore industry mobile unit, a vessel that has sunk or is stranded or abandoned and the remains of such a vessel. Explanation.A vessel shall not be deemed to be a vessel for the purposes of this clause, when it is broken up to such an extent that it cannot be put into use for navigation, as certified by a surveyor. The ship is no longer within the definition of a ship, the nature and category of the res is entirely altered, the court is without jurisdiction as there is no res, the ship has literally ceased to exist from the definition of a ship. A action in rem cannot be maintained in such situation.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 10

    Indian courts having admiralty jurisdiction

    The three Indian Courts of Admiralty i.e. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were courts of specific jurisdiction. In the course of time the jurisdiction of the High Courts of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa have entertained Admiralty actions. Under the Admiralty Act (2017), the jurisdiction of the High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Gujarat, Hyderabad Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Odisha have Admiralty actions.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 11

    Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards

    Once an award is found to be enforceable it may be enforced like a decree of that court. Arrest means detention or restriction for removal of a vessel by order of a High Court to secure a maritime claim including seizure of a vessel in execution or satisfaction of a judgment or order. A ship can be arrested for recognition and enforcement of judgments or order.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 12

    Beneficial Owner

    Beneficial owner means, one recognized in equity as the owner of something because use and title belong to that person, even though legal title may belong to someone else; esp., one for whom property is held in trust.- also termed equitable owner. Beneficial owner refers to the natural person(s) who ultimately owns or controls a customer and/or the person on whose behalf a transaction is being conducted. It also incorporates those persons who exercise ultimate effective control over a legal person or arrangement. The defining characteristic of the beneficial owner of an asset is that he holds a degree of control over the asset that allows him to benefit from it. Whether he is the legal owner (that is, holds legal title to it) is irrelevant. The essence of beneficial ownership is precisely not ownership in the ordinary sense of the word but rather control. Control and legal title often will lie in the same hands.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 13

    Stopping the judicial sale of a ship

    Prior to the sale of a ship having been concluded by the Sheriff of Mumbai or the Marshal if the claimants claim is satisfied, the sale will not proceed if a written notice is given to this effect.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 14

    Sale proceeds of the property or ship, sold by court

    On order for valuation and sale of the property or ship is passed by the court, the terms and conditions for sale of the ship is thereafter finalised by the Sheriff or the Marshal in consultation with the parties. The ship is sold as per terms and conditions. On ship being sold to the highest bidder, the Sheriff or the Marshal shall receive the full sale price from the buyer as per schedule and terms setout by the Sheriff or the Marshal. This sale proceeds is invested by the Sheriff or the Marshal in a nominated bank account and is later transferred to the designated bank account of the High Court in the said Admiralty suit whereby the ship is sold.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 15

    Tramp ship

    Tramp ship is a ship engaged in the tramp trade is one which does not have a fixed schedule or published ports of call. As opposed to freight liners, tramp ships trade on the spot market with no fixed schedule or itinerary/ports-of-call.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 16

    Seafarer's rights on unpaid wages

    Crew employed on the ship are mainly based on their appointment letter or the contract and their rights depends on the terms and conditions stipulated therein. Seafarer's has a right to invoke admiralty action and arrest a ship for unpaid wages, moreso, the crew claims have priority over other claims.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 17

    Is India a better forum for Ship Arrest?

    Admiralty jurisdiction can be invoked for any of the claims as setout in section 4 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 by filing a suit in the High Court in India having admiralty jurisdiction and obtaining an order of arrest of a ship. Admiralty suit can be filed when the ship is in Indian territorial waters being 12 nautical miles from the shore.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Notes & Summary 18

    Charter Parties

    A charter party is a highly standardized written document that provides the contractual arrangements for one party (the charterer) to hire the carrying capacity of a vessel, either in whole or in part, owned by another party. Generally, charter parties are subject to the rules and requirements of contract law. Charter party forms are used worldwide, and many of them have been drafted to take into consideration the specific needs of particular trades. Other charter parties are more general in form and are not adapted to a specific trade.

    OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

  • Part IV - Rules, Conventions, Acts, Orders, Landmark Cases, Glossary and Miscellaneous

    • Appendix 01

      Bombay High Court Rules

      Rules for regulating the procedure and practice in cases brought before the Bombay High Court under Admiralty jurisdiction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 02

      Madras High Court Rules

      Rules for regulating the procedure and practice in cases brought before the High Court of Judicature at Madras exercising Admiralty jurisdiction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 03

      The Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017

      The jurisdiction conferred by this Act on the High Court of Admiralty may be exercised either by proceedings in rem or by proceedings in personam.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 04

      Admiralty Court Act, 1861

      Repealed. The jurisdiction conferred by this Act on the High Court of Admiralty may be exercised either by proceedings in rem or by proceedings in personam.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 05

      Admiralty Court Act, 1890

      Repealed. An Act to amend the law respecting the exercise of Admiralty Jurisdiction.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 06

      Admiralty Court Act, 1891

      Repealed. An Act to declare certain Courts in [India] to be Colonial Courts of Admiralty.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 07

      The Major Port Trust Act, 1963

      An Act to make provision for the constitution of port authorities for certain major ports in India and to vest the administration, control and management of such ports in such authorities and for matters connected therewith.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 08

      The Indian Ports Act, 1908

      An Act to consolidate the enactments relating to Ports and Port-charges.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 09

      The Indian Bills of Lading Act, 1856

      An Act to amend the Law relating to Bills of Lading.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 10

      The York-Antwerp Rules, 2004

      The York-Antwerp Rules, 2004 recognises two main type of allowances, 'common safety allowances' and 'common benefit allowances'

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 11

      The Multi Modal Transportation of Goods Act, 1993

      An Act to provide for the regulation of the multimodal transportation of goods, from any place in India to a place outside India, on the basis of a multimodal transport contract and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 12

      The Indian Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1925

      An Act to amend the law with respect to the carriage of goods by sea

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 13

      The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958

      An Act to foster the development and ensure the efficient maintenance of an Indian mercantile marine in a manner best suited to serve the national interests and for that purpose to establish a National Shipping Board and a Shipping Development Fund, to provide for the registration of Indian ships and generally to amend and consolidate the law relating to merchant shipping.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 14

      Brussels Convention on Arrest of Ships

      Having recognised the desirability of determining by agreement certain uniform rules of law relating to the arrest of seagoing ships, have decided to conclude Brussels Convention on Arrest of Ship. The applicable law for ship arrest is the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 15

      Geneva Convention on Arrest of Ships

      The States Parties to this Convention, Recognizing the desirability of facilitating the harmonious and orderly development of world seaborne trade, Convinced of the necessity for a legal instrument establishing international uniformity in the field of arrest of ships which takes account of recent developments in related fields, The applicable law for ship arrest is the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 16

      Shipping Glossary

      Alphabetically arranged list of often difficult or specialised shipping words with their definition.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

    • Appendix 17

      Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Ship Arrest or Release

      Frequently asked question on Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India.

      OPEN | PDF | RESEARCH

Authors Honors, Awards and Rankings

  • Legal500
    Leading Individual

    Shrikant Hathi and Binita Hathi, both are listed in the elite "Leading lawyers" list as "Leading Individual", by Legal 500 since 2005 and the law firm Brus Chambers has been recommended as a "Top Tier Law Firm" for shipping work in India by Legal500 since 2010. Shrikant Hathi is smart, quick, and delivers outstanding results while Binita is aggresive and result oriented.

  • Lloyds List
    Strong in Shipping

    Shrikant Hathi is strong in shipping with clarity of mind and professional expertise. Binita Hathi simply gets what client needs if not, finds a way out.

  • SALK
    "The Best" shipping lawyers in India.

    Brus Chambers, a specialised law firm has been practicing shipping law since 1992 and continues as a dominant force in shipping and is "the best" shipping law firm in India while Dr. Shrikant Pareshnath Hathi and Ms. Binita Hathi continues to be "the best" shipping lawyer in India. The law firm is one of the leading and probably pre-eminent, Indian firm for shipping work and maintains one of Indias top shipping practice.

  • Shippinglawyers.NET
    Best of the Best

    Shrikant Hathi is the "best of the best" for shipping work in India

  • Tradewinds
    Effective

    Shrikant Hathi gives effective assistance to shipping industry.

  • Euromoney Expert
    World's Leading Lawyer

    Shrikant Hathi is listed in the "World's Leading lawyers" list since 2002 for shipping and maritime work in India.

  • IBLJ
    Shrikant Hathi, the best in shipping

    Brus Chambers awarded the Best Shipping Law Firm in India, headed by Shrikant Hathi, the best in shipping.

  • Asia Law Profiles
    Leading Shipping & Maritime Lawyer in India

    Shrikant Hathi- Leading Shipping & Maritime Lawyer in India also Leading Energy & Natural Resources Lawyer in India

  • Global Law Experts
    Leading Maritime & Admiralty Lawyer

    Leading Maritime & Admiralty Lawyer in India.

  • Economic Times
    Delivers results

    Quick understanding in shipping law, street smart and delivers results.

  • Magic Lawyers
    Leading Individual

    Shrikant Hathi is a Leading Individual for shipping work in India and Brus Chambers projects and delivers industry expertize consistently.

  • Chamber Practice
    First class legal advice

    Shrikant Hathi gives first class legal advice on shipping, he is brillant and has in-depth expertise.

Working Alongside

Poonam Das

Advocate at Brus Chambers

Pritish Das

Advocate at Brus Chambers

Binita Hathi

Solicitor and Partner at Brus Chambers

Monika Gothankar

Legal Researcher at Brus Chambers

Strong Team

Our team are experienced and result oriented. They are either qualified solicitors, advocates or para-legals of the law firm Brus Chambers working alongside in each given file. They work on the given file when required but we do not charge you for their work done.

Specialised Areas of Practice

  • image

    Shipping

    Ship Arrest; Dry & Wet Shipping; P&I Settlement

    Ship arrest or release

    Dry and wet shipping

    Personal Injury and crew wages

    Ship finance

    Ship buy or sell

    International trade

    P&I Settlement

     

    Dry and wet shipping would include matters of a contentious and non-contentious drafting of agreements, shipping and other documents including negotiations.

    Within contentious the areas covered but not limited to are International Commercial and Contractual Disputes; Letter of Credit; FOB, CIF contracts; Lay time; Demurrage; Safe port; Seaworthiness; Notice of readiness; Breach of warranty; Deemed earned clause on freight in a voyage charter; Off-hire events in a time charter; Delivery without production of the bill of lading; Through bill of lading; Cargo claims; Marine insurance claims; Shipbuilding contract; Ship repair; Arrests or Release of Ships; Bunker Disputes; Recovery of Unpaid Dues; Cargo Claims, Repairs; Claims, Liens, Towage, Salvage, Pilotage; Commodity Disputes; Damage Done or Received by any Ship; Freight, Hire, Demurrage, Lay time; Masters and Crew Claims; Necessaries & Supplies; Ownership, Possession, Building, Equipping; Shipping Litigation & Arbitration; Bill of Lading, Charter parties; Construction of Ships & Rigs; P&I Clubs, Settlement; Marine Insurance; Wet Shipping covers all aspects of shipping law includes claims that usually attend maritime disasters, casualties, accidents such as collisions, loss or destruction of freight at sea, piracy, explosion or capture by hostile groups, transgressing into territorial waters, oil spills, salvage, general average, statutory liability of ship owners for pollution also covering all claims that usually attend maritime disasters, casualties, accidents such as collisions, loss or destruction of freight at sea, piracy, explosion or capture by hostile groups, transgressing into territorial waters, oil spills, salvage, general average, statutory liability of ship owners for pollution.

    Within non-contentious the areas covered are Sale and Purchase of ship; New Building contract with shipbuilders; Ship Mortgage; Ship Finance; Ship Agency; Port and Jetty Terminals; Port Projects and Developments; Ship and Asset Financing, Mortgage ; Ship or Rig Building agreements; Ship Registration and Flagging; Agreements & Contracts; Port Facilities & Regulations.

    Shipping practice includes Protection & Indemnity (P&I) Settlements. Brus Chambers offers a comprehensive service covering the full range of commercial contracts and trading arrangements aimed for the shipping industry and being a shipping specialist advises on all aspects of international trade including sale of goods and letters of credit, documentary credits (UCP 600), trading terms and conditions (INCOTERMS). The firm has a specialised team within shipping advising crew members for recovery of unpaid crew claims or wages, unpaid master's wages, maritime personal injury and commercial litigation.

  • image

    Projects

    Infrastructure, Oil, Gas, Energy, Mining, Shipping & Port

    Infrastructure & Construction

    Oil, Gas & Natural Resources

    Energy & Mining

    Shipping & Port

    Project Finance

    Other Minor & Mega Projects

     

    Specialising in the entire gamut of projects.

  • image

    Dispute Resolution

    Commercial Litigation, International Arbitration & Enforcements

    Commercial & Contractual

    Ship Arrest or Release

    Shipping & Maritime

    International Arbitration

    Enforcement of Foreign Awards

    Infrastructure & Construction

    Oil, Gas & Natural Resources

    Recoveries & Claims

     

    Our Litigation and Arbitration is Pan-India

Filter by type:

Sort by year:

M.V. Elisabeth -vs- Harwan Investment and Trading Pvt Ltd

Supreme Court of India, from Andhra Pradesh High Court
Judgments February 26, 1992

Abstract

Colonial Courts Of Admiralty Act, 1890 - Sec 2 - Admiralty Court Act, 1861 - Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890 - Constitution of India - Art 225, 226 - jurisdiction of High Court to order arrest and detention of foreign ship - admiralty jurisdiction - ambit - held, admiralty jurisdiction of High Court is not limited by Act of 1861 and Act of 1890 - Andhra Pradesh High Court has jurisdiction to order arrest and detention of foreign ship - appeal disposed of.

Liverpool & London Steamship Protection and Indemnity Association -vs- M.V. Sea Success I

Supreme Court of India, from Bombay High Court
Judgments November 20, 2003

Abstract

Supreme Court is not bound by the American decisions -- American decisions have merely a persuasive value -- this Court would not hesitate in borrowing the principles if the same is in consonance with the scheme of Indian law keeping in view the changing global scenario. Global changes and outlook in trade and commerce could be a relevant factor. With the change of time; from narrow and pedantic approach, the Court may resort to broad and liberal interpretation -- Circulars -- issued by the Port Trusts may not determinative -- but would be a relevant factor -- Words and Phrases -- necessaries -- whether arrears of insurance premium would come within the term necessaries -- whether a prudent shipowner would provide for an insurance. A compulsory insurance regime has come into being and keeping in view the changed situation the definition of the expression necessaries should also undergo a change -- having regard to the changing scenario and keeping in tune with the changes in both domestic and international law as also the statutes adopted by several countries, a stand, however, bold, may have to be taken that unpaid insurance premium of P &I Club would come within the purview of the expression "Necessaries supplied to any ship" -- Insurance premium -- unpaid insurance premium being a maritime claim would be enforceable in India -- Letters Patent Appeal -- Clause 15 -- the right of appeal which is provided under Clause 15 of the Letters Patent cannot be said to be restricted -- Clause 15 of the Letters Patent is not a special statute. Only in a case where there exists an express prohibition in the matter of maintainability of an intra court appeal, the same may not be held to be maintainable. But in the event there does not exist any such prohibition and if the order will otherwise be a judgment within the meaning of Clause 15 of the Letters Patent, an appeal shall be maintainable -- Letters Patent Appeal -- maintainability of -- Preliminary judgment -- the order refusing to reject the plaint falls in the category of a preliminary judgment.

Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India

Dr. Shrikant Pareshnath Hathi, Ms. Binita Shrikant Hathi
Book Brus Chambers | March 01, 2017 | BCAS: 7103-1001, Tenth Edition
image

Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India

Although the focal points of Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India are admiralty laws and procedures, this tenth edition book contains the entire gamut of admiralty edicts including ship arrest and substantive admiralty law prevalent in India, several new chapters are also introduced including procedures, summary and notes.

Ship Arrest in India was accessible for private use only is now available for free to all also sharing the content database of Maritime Practice in India. The online edition includes a research engine wherefrom you can search for reported or unreported Indian Admiralty court orders or judgments, articles. This book is about a subject that has been lurking in the scourges of darkness of Indian maritime history for many decades. It provides an in-depth insight into Indian Admiralty law and procedures, thus placing maritime and admiralty practice at the threshold of the legal fraternity.

This book is a compact, integrated guide to admiralty law and procedure in India. The primary purpose of this book is to better enlighten shipping and industry related professionals to take prompt and decisive decisions. We seek to clarify what the law requires, allow and prohibit, not to comment on how well it does so or whether what it should. We hope that this publication will contribute towards the realistic assessment and debate of the surrounding issues.

The book does not indulge exhaustively in any topic neither does it predicts any outcome of any particular case nor can it be considered as a substitute for competent legal counsel. Although we believe that the entire text is accurate at the time of publication, if it does not already fall short of this standard, it surely will with the passage of time.

This book is the first of its kind on admiralty laws published in India. Utility of the book with respect to a second central aim, to advance general understanding about the regulation of admiralty laws in India, is less apt to erode.

India a better forum for Ship Arrest

Shrikant Hathi
Articles & Newsletter Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India, Tenth Edition, Notes & Summary 17

Abstract

Ship Arrest in India, India is now considered to be the best forum for ship arrest. Admiralty jurisdiction can be invoked for any of the claims as setout in the Brussels or Geneva arrest conventions by filing a suit in the High Court in India having admiralty jurisdiction and obtaining an order of arrest of a ship. Admiralty suit can be filed when the ship is in Indian territorial waters being 12 nautical miles from the shore.

Arrest of Ship

Dr. Shrikant Pareshnath Hathi, Ms. Binita Shrikant Hathi
Book Chapter Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India | Tenth Edition

The main purpose of arrest is to obtain security for satisfaction of judgment in the action in rem and it is necessary to arrest the ship in order to establish jurisdiction.

Merchant ships of different nationalities travel from port to port carrying goods or passengers. They incur liabilities in the course of their voyage and they subject themselves to the jurisdiction of foreign States when they enter the waters of those States. They are liable to be arrested for the enforcement of maritime claims, or seized in execution or satisfaction of judgments in legal actions arising out of collisions; salvage, loss of life or personal injury, loss of or damage to goods and the like. They are liable to be detained or confiscated by the authorities of foreign States for violating their customs, regulations, safely measures, rules of the road, health regulations, and for other causes. The coastal State may exercise its criminal jurisdiction on board the vessel for the purpose of arrest or investigation in connection with certain serious crimes. In the course of an international voyage, a vessel thus subjects itself to the public and private laws of various countries. A ship traveling from port to port stays very briefly in any one port. A plaintiff seeking to enforce his maritime claim against a foreign ship has no effective remedy once it has sailed away and if the foreign owner has neither property nor residence within jurisdiction. The plaintiff may therefore detain the ship by obtaining an order of attachment whenever it is feared that the ship is likely to slip out of jurisdiction, thus leaving the plaintiff without any security.

Seafarer's rights on unpaid wages

Shrikant Hathi
Articles & Newsletter Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India, Tenth Edition, Notes & Summary 16

Abstract

A seafarer or a crew member can invoke admiralty jurisdiction and arrest a ship for unpaid wages. An order of arrest of the ship can be obtained from the court having admiralty jurisdiction preferably from the Bombay High Court as this court has pan-India ship arrest jurisdiction, and arrest the ship anywhere in Indian territorial waters, the seafarer may or may not be an Indian citizen to initiate action for arrest of a ship in India and also the ship may be registered anywhere in the world or maybe flying any flag. Crew claim for unpaid wages should be initiated within the three year period from the due date and if the seaman has died while he was a serving seaman, the period from the date of his death to the date on which his next of kin were first informed of his death shall be excluded. The documents that needs to be produced in court are appointment letter and or the agreement or the employment contract; copy of the passport showing that sign on and the sign off dates; continuous discharge certificate (cdc) showing the capacity of the crew also the sign in and sign off dates; account of wages and or wage slips; correspondences exchanged demanding unpaid wages directly and or through the master of the ship; power of attorney/ letter of authority, this need to be notarised and apostilled at the location where the power of attorney is executed. Each crew claims are separate cause of action and should there be more than one crew wages that remains unpaid they cannot be clubbed and each crews will have to file separate suit under admiralty jurisdiction.

Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd - versus - M.V. Kapitan Kud

Supreme Court of India, from Bombay High Court
Judgments November 10, 1995

Abstract

Admiralty Law -- Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court -- Damage caused to international Cable Telecommunication cable by a foreign ship -- Suit filed claiming Rs. 28 crores and warrant issued against the vessel - Held, the High Court had jurisdiction under Bombay High Court Original Side Rule, Part III read with Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 -Directions issued to release the ship on deposit of Rs. 10 crores and undertaking of Rs. 25 crores by accredited authority. Under Rule 949 of the Bombay High Court Original Side Rule, provided that the party applying under the Rule in a suit in rem for arrest of the property, undertaking shall be given in writing or through the advocate to such amount by way of damages. Admiralty action is an action in rem the Division Bench wrongly refused to interfere on the ground that the Captain of the vessel filed undertaking that the vessel belonged to Black Sea Shipping Co. owned by Ukrainian Government. The High Court was competent to release the vessel on certain conditions namely, deposit of Rs. 10 crores and on giving undertaking by Ukrarian Government and for giving surety for Rs. 25 crores. Part III, Rules 941 and 952 -- Merchant Shipping Act, Section 1 and Civil Procedure Code, 1908. Section 140 -- Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court -- Where damages were caused to international telecommunication cable by a foreign ship owned by Ukranian Government -- The warrants issued by the High Court -- Held, the High Court had jurisdiction to entertain the matter -- Dierections issued to the release the ship on deposit of Rs. 10 crores and on giving undertaking for Rs. 25 crore. Rules on admirality jurisdiction in part III were framed by the Bombay High Court to regulate the procedure and practice on the original side of the Bombay High Court. According to the report of survey, the cable was damaged to anchoring and there were strong grounds and evidence to believe that the ship in question was within the vicinity where the damage took place. Section 140 C P C provides that in any admiralty or vice admiralty caused, the court whether it be exercising original or appellate jurisdiction may summon two competent assessors in the manner stated therein. Rule 941 of Bombay High Court original side rules provides that party a applying under this rule in a suit in rem for arrest of the property, undertaking in writing shall be given. Rule 954 provides that subject to Rule 952, property arrested under a warrant may be released on requests and conditions. Therefore, the vessel directed to be released subject to the deposit of R s. 10 crore and the Ukrainian Government gives an undertaking through its authority may be its Ambassador and further undertaking for balance amount of Rs. 18 crore and other expenses roughly put at R s. 25 crore. Section 9(1) -- Bombay High Court Original Side Rules, Part-III, Rules 941 and 952 -- Admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court -- Where International Tele-Communication Cable was damaged by a foreign ship which was later on arrested under the warrants and subsequently the plaintiff filed a sut for 28 crores for damages, the C ourt released the ship on deposit of Rs. 10 crores alongwith undertaking of 25 crores by accredited authority. The crucial question involved was whether the appellant had made out a prima facie case. Applying R ule 941, the High Court had power to arrest the property and to give it on undertaking in writing or on payment of such amount as damages as the court may direct. R ule 954 provides that subject to the provisions of Rule 952, property arrested may be ordered to be released. The division Bench of the High Court found that the claim was not vexatious but was tribal. There was strong evidence to show that at the relevant time the respondent vessel was within the vicinity of damaged cable. The Division Bench declined to interfere on the ground that the captain of the vessel filed an undertaking that the vessel belonged to Black Sea Shipping Company which was wholly owned by Ukrainian government. Neither the approach of the Division Bench nor the finding of the trial judge, on the admiralty jurisdiction that no prima facie case was made out, was right. There was a strong case in the circumstances of the case. Since the claim even if successful would remain unexecutable if the ship leaves the shores of India Territorial Waters, the vessel allowed to be released on certain conditions, firstly the respondent shall deposit a sum of Rs.10 crores and secondly the Ukrainian government shall give undertaking to its accredited authority in writing and thirdly the undertaking should be for balance amount of Rs. 18 crores and towards costs and other expenses, roughly put up at Rs. 25 crores.

Maritime Practice in India

Dr. Shrikant Pareshnath Hathi, Ms. Binita Shrikant Hathi
Book Brus Chambers | March 01, 2017 | BCAS: 7103-1001, Tenth Edition
image

Maritime Practice in India

Although the focal points of Ship Arrest in India and Admiralty Laws of India are admiralty laws and procedures, this tenth edition book contains the entire gamut of admiralty edicts including ship arrest and substantive admiralty law prevalent in India, several new chapters are also introduced including procedures, summary and notes.

Ship Arrest in India was accessible for private use only is now available for free to all also sharing the content database of Maritime Practice in India. The online edition includes a research engine wherefrom you can search for reported or unreported Indian Admiralty court orders or judgments, articles. This book is about a subject that has been lurking in the scourges of darkness of Indian maritime history for many decades. It provides an in-depth insight into Indian Admiralty law and procedures, thus placing maritime and admiralty practice at the threshold of the legal fraternity.

This book is a compact, integrated guide to admiralty law and procedure in India. The primary purpose of this book is to better enlighten shipping and industry related professionals to take prompt and decisive decisions. We seek to clarify what the law requires, allow and prohibit, not to comment on how well it does so or whether what it should. We hope that this publication will contribute towards the realistic assessment and debate of the surrounding issues.

The book does not indulge exhaustively in any topic neither does it predicts any outcome of any particular case nor can it be considered as a substitute for competent legal counsel. Although we believe that the entire text is accurate at the time of publication, if it does not already fall short of this standard, it surely will with the passage of time.

This book is the first of its kind on admiralty laws published in India. Utility of the book with respect to a second central aim, to advance general understanding about the regulation of admiralty laws in India, is less apt to erode.

9Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Articles & Newsletter Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 191-194

Abstract

Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

10The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways To Use Social Media to Drive Social Change

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Book Chapter John Wiley & Sons | September 28, 2010 | ISBN-10: 0470614153
image

Proven strategies for harnessing the power of social media to drive social change

Many books teach the mechanics of using Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to compete in business. But no book addresses how to harness the incredible power of social media to make a difference. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit.
  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • .sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • Onsectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

11Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Articles & Newsletter Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 191-194

Abstract

Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

12Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Judgments Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 191-194

Abstract

Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

13The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways To Use Social Media to Drive Social Change

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Book John Wiley & Sons | September 28, 2010 | ISBN-10: 0470614153
image

Proven strategies for harnessing the power of social media to drive social change

Many books teach the mechanics of using Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to compete in business. But no book addresses how to harness the incredible power of social media to make a difference. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit.
  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • .sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • Onsectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

14Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Articles & Newsletter Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2009, Pages 191-194

Abstract

Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

15The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways To Use Social Media to Drive Social Change

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Book Chapter John Wiley & Sons | September 28, 2010 | ISBN-10: 0470614153
image

Proven strategies for harnessing the power of social media to drive social change

Many books teach the mechanics of using Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to compete in business. But no book addresses how to harness the incredible power of social media to make a difference. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit.
  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • .sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
  • Onsectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

16Cultivating admiration in brands: Warmth, competence, and landing in the “golden quadrant”

Jennifer Doe, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs
Articles & Newsletter Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 191-194

Abstract

Although a substantial amount of research has examined the constructs of warmth and competence, far less has examined how these constructs develop and what benefits may accrue when warmth and competence are cultivated. Yet there are positive consequences, both emotional and behavioral, that are likely to occur when brands hold perceptions of both. In this paper, we shed light on when and how warmth and competence are jointly promoted in brands, and why these reputations matter.

Ship Arrest Fees & Expenses

  • 03.2024 01.2020

    Methodology

    Brus Chambers professional fees are mainly computed on hourly basis, blended hourly rates, some are customised on case to case basis or on fixed fee, retainer etc depending on client requirement or on the matter. All disbursements and tax where applicable are computed on actual unless the same is a package offer. Third party costs or disbursements wherever applicable would include travel and transport; photocopying; phones and faxes; experts and counsels; court and other departmental expenses; airfare, hotels and meals, videoconferencing; correspondent fees and expenses; court or institutional fees, stamping and registration; government, quasi-government or other fees; other actual expenses.

    For Ship arrest or release work in India, firms billing rate is calculated at fixed lumpsum fee, all inclusive but will differ depending on jurisdiction from where the ship needs to be arrested or released in India. The firms detailed billing rates for ship arrest work is explained at. Click here for more details

At Our Office

You can find us in our Mumbai main office located at Brus Chambers, Advocates & Solictors, 8, Rajabahadur Mansion, 3rd Floor, Ambalal Doshi Marg, Behind BSE, Above Spices & Flavour Restaurant, Fort, Mumbai 400001, India.

We are in our office every day from 9:00 AM until 6:30 PM- IST (Monday through Friday), but you may consider a call to fix an appointment.

Our Other Offices in India

Brus Chambers have three offices in Mumbai. Our Mumbai main office attends to shipping, projects, international arbitration and litigation work while our Corporate and advisory office in Mumbai attends to corporate related work while our New Delhi office works mainly on commercial and civil work for NCR region, The firm also has office at Port and Capital City in all States of India and also at New York, New Jersey, Missouri, London and Bradford.

Office Address

Dr. Shrikant Pareshnath Hathi

Managing & Practicing Partner

 

Ms. Binita Hathi

Practicing Partner

 

BRUS CHAMBERS

Advocates & Solicitors

8, Rajabahadur Mansion, 3rd Floor,

Ambalal Doshi Marg (Behind BSE), Fort,

Mumbai 400001, India